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Engagement Letter

Dear Soon-To-Be Mr. and Mrs. Smith,Congratulations on your engagement! It must be a very exciting time for the both of you, and I really appreciate how you both decided to reach out to me in regards to this issue. Yes, as the cliché goes, communication is key, and the earlier you learn that, the healthier your relationship will grow. This is something I can promise. Interpersonal communication, as the technical term goes, is all about principles, not methods. This is an important distinction, because, as the great Ralph Waldo Emerson once said, “The man who grasps principles can successfully select his own methods.” This is to say that every couple is different and will always be different, so I cannot prescribe to you any direct “methods” by which to effectively conduct discourse. I can, however, tell you about the principles I myself have been learning. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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The first important principle to keep in mind is that of mutual respect. Respect is a tough concept to grasp for some, but the most basic way of understanding it is via that age-old adage: “Treat others how you yourself would like to be treated.” Many people do not engage in much needed discourse because of an underlying issue that gnaws at them, and they fear that this underlying issue will rear itself during the course of communication and topple any type of productive and cumulative effect a good discussion might provide. In many cases, although a front might be put up to make it appear as if these underlying issues are not there, humans are uniquely tuned to be able to detect, what we frequently refer to as, passive-aggression: a phoniness in the way that we talk to each other and one another that just feels as if one person is placing themselves on a higher playing field than the other. This is where communication can break down, especially between couples engaged in a romantic relationship such as the two of you. Obviously the “level” of respect one gives a peer differs based on that peer’s relationship to you.
One thing to consider would be what “level of disclosure” you two consider yourselves at. Are you the type of couple that tells everything to one another or do you keep some things secretive? In most cases of romantic relationships, I must say, open communication has been proven to be more successful than selective communication. Still, every couple’s sweet spot is different. Obviously, gender has to be taken into account when communicating effectively. You would not talk to your female co-worker the same way you would to your fiancée. Therefore, effective communication also stems from knowing exactly how much “personal information” to divulge and, importantly, when it should be divulged. It’s been said that the best time to communicate for couples is the morning – because the body and mind is refreshed, and because grudges are largely forgotten or downplayed in the morning – especially if the couple sleeps in the same bed. But I digress. The second foundational principle on which to base effective interpersonal communication is not to interrupt or talk over the other person when they are attempting to communicate something to you. Today, many people have trouble listening to something they don’t necessarily agree with without interjecting. They tend to feel the nagging urgency to immediately refute whatever argument is being made. This is not necessary and usually leads to the complete breakdown of the otherwise cordial communication. Equal proportioning of listening and talking is what makes some discourses more productive than others. The key to understanding how communication can be leveled the most effectively is by taking into account now only the myriad of potential contexts that it can play out in – psychological (who you are and what concerns you bring), relational (your reactions to the other person’s grievances), environmental, cultural (the social upbringing that you were raised in), and environmental (the context of where you are when the communication takes place).
My solid piece of advice for the ultimate flourishing of your communication is to understand that everything that can go wrong in a discussion will go wrong if you don’t adhere to the principles of letting the other person talk, being respectful, and knowing the context. If a message can be misunderstood as a slight, it will, so make your messages be clear as possible. There is always someone who knows your message better than you, so do not act like an expert and put yourself above your partner.

Theory That Support Solution

Theory of planned behavior is a proven and well-validated decision-making model that has been successfully applied to washing of hands in both clinical and non-clinical environments. The theory describes intention as the fundamental determinant of behavior. In that case, an intention is influenced by subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and attitude. Theory of planned behavior is designed to understand and change human behavior thus; it can be used to foretell deliberate actions since some practices are planned intentionally. Hence, the idea is used to improve perceived behavioral control and predictive power of the theory. My rationale for selecting the approach because it is a well-validated and decision-making model that has been typically applied to hands hygiene in both clinical and non-clinical environments over the recent years. In fact, the theory identified inaccessibility of hands hygiene as the core component of performance (Fitzpatrick & McCarthy, 2010).

The theory supports my proposed solution because it provides a platform for understanding and explaining the current issues regarding hands hygiene behavior amongst the nurses and how it can be modified to reduce the number of hospitals acquired infections. Perhaps, a majority of nurses do not uphold high standards of hands hygiene thus contributing to the increase in the number of hospitals acquired infections. Hence, the best behavioral modification that can assist in addressing the issue is consequently upholding high hands hygiene. The theory can as well be used to predict and explain how healthcare providers address the issue of hands hygiene in the project. Besides, the idea can be utilized to ascertain the expected outcome of the proposed solution alongside evaluation of its essential benefits. Additionally, the theory of planned behavior can be incorporated into the project by serving as a tool for appraising the existing policy of hands hygiene and identification of the most suitable strategies for promoting compliance (Fitzpatrick & McCarthy, 2010). You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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Fitzpatrick, J. J., & McCarthy, G. (2010). Theories guiding nursing research and practice: Making nursing knowledge development explicit.

Foundations of Psychoanalysis

Psychoanalysis is an umbrella term that refers to various methods, techniques and theories created by Sigmund Freud (1856-1939), as well as other reputable contributors / practitioners. As the founder of psychoanalysis, Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud was the first to hypothesize that certain mental disorders and diseases could be treated by talking to patients. After becoming aware of the important role that unconscious mental activity played in triggering specific symptoms, Freud coined the term psychoanalysis in 1896 and spent the following four decades describing its founding principles, goals and methodology, to the extent that psychoanalysis is now widely perceived as a scientific discipline by most experts and scholars.

As simple as his proposed approach may sound, his theories were based on sound scientific principles, which he used to explore the human psyche and identify the causes and dynamics of depression, anxiety disorders, as well as other common mental disorders. Psychoanalysis is based on a number of assumptions:

Psychological issues can only be resolved by addressing their roots, which are situated in the unconscious mind.

Each manifest symptom stems from hidden issues that need to unveil through adequate treatment.

Numerous mental disorders and disturbances derive from repressed / forgotten traumatic events occurred in infancy and / or childhood.

In order for the patient to be able to resolve their issues, it is crucial that the psychoanalyst should employ appropriate methods to bring the repressed memories and experiences to consciousness. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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As explained by the National Psychological Association for Psychoanalysis (1998), the main purpose of psychoanalytic treatment is to reveal how the uncurious mind affects individuals’ actions, decisions, thoughts, relationships and mental health. By allowing practitioners and patients to trace certain behavioral patterns and disorders to their unconscious origins, psychoanalytic therapies have the power to show how various disturbances have evolved over time, thus assisting patients in overcoming their challenges.
In An Outline of Psychoanalysis, Freud (1949) explains that the physical apparatus is governed by three main forces, namely the id – which is the unconscious mind where one’s basic instincts, needs, desires and inherited memories reside, the ego – i.e. the conscious mind that filters and controls one’s unconscious demands, and the superego, which suppresses the other two forces and is strongly affected by one’s morals and views on what is right and what is wrong. In order to gain a better understanding of how these three forces affect our behavior, suffice to say that the id demands instant satisfaction (e.g. I am at the restaurant and I want another glass of water), the ego helps us deal with reality (e.g. the person sitting next to me has a glass of water, but I am going to wait for the waiter to come back in order to get a refill – this way, I will not embarrass myself), and the superego makes decisions based on judgements and moral values (e.g. stealing someone else’s water is wrong and drinking from someone else’s glass may be perceived as rude).
Freud argued that since the id is what affects human behavior, psychoanalysts should focus on their patients’ basic instincts and desires in order to identify the causes of their disorders. He also acknowledged that every action is either triggered by love (commonly referred to as Eros) or death, which are people’s most basic instincts. While the love instinct aims to maintain unity through one’s relationships, the death instinct prompts individuals to “destroy” their connections and relationships (Freud, 1949, p. 19).
With regards to sexual perversions and homosexuality, Freud (1949, p. 27) observed that these “distortions” derive from errors and issues that interfere with the correct development of the sexual function. Specifically, Freud (1949, pp. 23-25) identified four stages of sexual development:

The oral phase, when infants take pleasure from biting, sucking and chewing, as their mouths are a source of satisfaction

The sadistic-anal phase, when individuals associate pleasure with defecation and aggression / pain

The phallic / Electra phase, when boys begin fearing their fathers and have sexual thoughts about their mothers, while girls develop hostile attitudes towards sex as a result of the so-called penis envy

The genital phase, when one’s sexual function is fully developed and organized.
Due to the presence of natural defense mechanisms in the unconscious mind, it can be quite difficult for a psychoanalyst to access their patients’ unconscious and preconscious ideas, which is why psychoanalysis tends to be a long and complex process that often involves frequent weekly sessions for several years.
In spite of their unquestionable contribution to our understanding of the human psyche, Freud’s theories and techniques have been criticized on multiple occasions. For example, Grünbaum (1986, p. 220) pointed out that the validity of Freud’s clinical data may have been compromised by his suggestions and expectations, Greenberg (1986, p. 240) argued that Freud failed to reveal the outcome of his therapies as his main goal was to illustrate his theoretical principles, and Colby (1960, p. 54) considered Freud’s methodology to be flawed due to the fact that he did not use a control group to test his hypotheses. Moreover, the fact that the same phenomenon may be interpreted in different ways by different psychoanalysts clearly indicates that psychoanalysis cannot be regarded as a scientific practice (Colby, 1960, p. 55).
Many others argued that the main problem with Freud’s principles is that they are based on the assumption that the human psyche is governed by deterministic forces that can be explored through scientific tools. As Popper (1986, p. 254) observed, psychoanalysis should not even be regarded as a scientific enterprise as besides being unfalsifiable, it revolves around predictions concerning individuals’ hidden motives, whose invisibility to the human eye makes them untestable. Last but not least, recent research has revealed that homosexuality, sexual perversions and certain mental disorders stem from factors that are different from the ones identified by Freud.

American Psychoanalytic Association (1998, January 31). About psychoanalysis. Retrieved from

Colby, K. M. (1960). An introduction to psychoanalytic research. New York: Basic.
Freud, S. (1949). An outline of psychoanalysis. New York: Norton.
Greenberg, R. P. (1986). The case against Freud’s cases. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 240-241.
Grünbaum, A. (1986). Précis of The foundations of psychoanalysis: A philosophical critique.

Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 9, 217-284.
Popper, K. (1986). Predicting overt behavior versus predicting hidden states. Behavioral and Brain

Sciences, 9, 254-255.

Beauty Essay

Many people make their decisions while dating while judging the physical beauty. However, not every individual is blessed to be physically beautiful. Such a reasoning and decision-making is often deceiving, as the real beauty of a person is hidden inside. Moreover, when the relationship is ineffective, as the physical beauty may really overshadow the real beauty which is inside oneself. That is why the inner beauty is the one that matters the most and should be taken as a starting point in any relationship.

There are many reasons why the inner beauty is more important than the physical beauty. Often, people think that the physical beauty is the most decisive factor in their relationship and tend to disregard what an individual has to share the factors inside. However, the personality and ability to illustrate the appreciation for the relationship are actually left inside. For many, this would be the most important and decisive factor. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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No less important is to understand that with the time flow, the interests of people tend to change. The very same physical beauty and nothing left inside may motivate an individual to turn to a different direction and start a new relationship. This may happen because of many things. But at the same time, if a person has nothing to offer within his or her personality, there is no wonder why another partner may initiate a different relationship. That is why the inner beauty should be perceived as the most motivating factor and something that drives people forward in their actions.
On the contrary, certain people may argue that the relationship should be based on the balance between the physical beauty and the inner beauty. In other words, it would mean that people tend to seek a partner that resembles themselves, both physically and with the inner beauty. The issue with such a concept is that people often turn others down because of their physical beauty. In other words, there are not that many couples that actually manage to balance their relationship between a physical beauty and the inner beauty. That is why one shall be aware of these complications.
Those who have an excellent physical beauty should be aware that a lot was given to them by nature. They should always contrast themselves to those people who do not possess such an explicit physical beauty as they do. Those who are physically beautiful also create certain stereotypes within the societies and by doing so, they demotivate others even more. In other words, most of the fashion and beauty standards would be shaped by the ideas which originate from the physically beautiful people. Consequently, those who would want to start their relationship would look for certain standards in appearances according to the imposed standards. Thus, the perspective of gender stereotyping indicates that there are certain elements which contribute to misconceptions of those who are not physically beautiful. Ultimately, people with the inner beauty may suffer because of the psychological issues and their lack of acceptance while starting the relationship.
To sum up, there are many different reasons why the inner beauty should matter more in the relationship that the physical beauty. Given that the standards of beauty are created through certain stereotypes, there is a huge risk that people would look only for the beauty and disregard the real personality of an individual while starting the relationship. Moreover, the success of the relationship where the physical beauty prevails is also questionable, as people may tend to look for different partners after a while. That is why the inner beauty represents an indicator of success in the relationship.

Final Paper Discussion

In psychological research, it is more important to understand the limitations of any study or data. By exploring issues relating to male victims of domestic abuse, my research specifically defines how psychology surpasses the goals of research in other fields. Through a research approach based on a reflection on the study and the drawbacks addressing these limitations, a systematic analysis of the incidence of male victims of domestic abuse can be proven to be the most efficient means to investigate the issue.

The greatest limitation to my research pertains to the time and resources available to complete the study. In the study, the lack of resources has an impact on the size of the respondent population as well as the profile. Since I used an online survey to target college students, there are limitations to its applicability as a sample. The results will be indicative of the profile of the respondent population, which differs from the total population of interest. Furthermore, there are limitations pertaining to the sample size, which was not large enough to have a strong sense of confidence in the sample’s applicability. Though there are limitations in the research, my study serves as an initial exploration which can provide insight leading toward more specific research goals in this field of study that will be used to improve my research. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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Since the study was based upon self-reported data, one limitation is that there is a subjective bias among the respondents. Whereas observational data provides quantitative information which can be compared to other forms of research, people have varying thoughts, feelings and insecurities which may prevent their full insight into their own behaviors (Kuan et al., 2014). Despite this limitation, the study has provided insight into the attitudes and beliefs of male victims of domestic violence. The most critical aspect of research in this area pertains to the attitudes and beliefs of the victims being studied along with their perceptions in this trial study. Though this study does not project a quantifiable area of information, the limitations in subjective bias are undermined by the vast amount of insight from the subject’s perspective.
Another limitation, one which may also have an impact compounded with the first issue regarding the problem of self-reported data, is that of gender bias in society. While the intent of this study was to review aspects of the gender bias inherent in the situation of male victims of domestic violence, the general level of gender bias can inhibit or confound results. One example is shown through the hesitation that men feel in regard to revealing traits that are not aligned with positive perceptions of masculinity (Houle et al., 2015). Though the study focuses on the insight among the target population, issues such as gender bias can contribute to limitations in research findings based on the subject’s inability to disclose information. Gender bias is one issue within the broader research area that becomes a confounding factor in a subjective research study.
Though the study has limitations, there are strengths that can be uncovered through addressing the limitations of the study. As I continue to progress in my endeavor of completing the study, investigating issues within further research can prove to make my research study highly defined. For instance, further research that seeks to quantify and compare situations of male victims of domestic violence would more specifically project the overall to clearly indicate how the victim’s perceptions are unique to each case. By investigating qualitatively the experience of male victims of domestic violence and to understand profiles of male victims of domestic violence, the collected research would expound on the cases through the subject’s viewpoint. Also, two further studies which would complement the existing study and further insights would be done through in-depth case studies which would recruit targeted individuals who are or have been male victims of domestic violence. Observational studies would also be included in that statistically compared to demographic information of male victims of domestic violence in order to find general patterns or indicators that have correlation. The limitations in the research can be used to further increase the specificity of the research study by pinpointing more specific goals that will become the strengths of my final research project.
Another issue that I encountered in this research endeavor pertains to the fact that domestic violence has typically focused on the experiences of females. Often the occurrence of male victims has been overlooked in the existing knowledge base of studies and research. There continues to be gaps in literature on the topic in terms of what has been reported with regards to male victims of domestic violence and in my final research project, I will work to more thoroughly analyze this area. The profiles of male victims of violence, the dynamics of abuse and assessment of similarities and differences to that of female victims of domestic violence remains an area of opportunity for researchers. I will use the limitations described in this paper on the topic proposal and the overlooked issues in regards to the incidence of male victims in domestic violence to become the basis for the strengths of my future research on this subject.
All studies have limitations, and mine had limitations based on the population which responded. My research also was prone to have limitations based on the lack of research in the on this topic. Though there were problems of subjectivity in self-reported data and confounding factors due to gender bias in society, my future research will encompass a broad range of data that I will collect to define the matter of male victims of domestic violence in the field of psychology. My research endeavors in the future on these studies will address the knowledge which remains unknown, including limitations to my study, and research gaps in the literature.

Houle, J., Meunier, S., Tremblay, G., Gaboury, I., Francine de Montigny, P. H. D., Cloutier, L., … & MSERVSOC, F. O. B. (2015). Masculinity Ideology Among Male Workers and Its Relationship to Self-Reported Health Behaviors. International Journal of Men’s Health, 14(2), 163.
Kuan, K. K., Zhong, Y., & Chau, P. Y. (2014). Informational and normative social influence in group-buying: Evidence from self-reported and EEG data. Journal of Management Information Systems, 30(4), 151-178.

Approaches to Abnormal Behavior

Biological ModelThe model presumes that mental disorders, which defines the case for abnormality, stem from medically instigated biochemical processes akin to the manner in which pathogenic microorganisms cause a variety of diseases in the human body (Deacon, 2013). The approach asserts that unlikely behavioral variations arise due to diseases in the human body and therefore warrants a disease treatment approach (Kinderman, 2005). If an individual is mentally impaired and therefore behavioral imbalanced, then the diagnosis seeks to single out for instance by elimination which medical condition or disease could be the root causes of the condition and then apply standard procedures in the administration of suppressive drugs or electroconvulsive therapy in other cases. For instance and individual diagnosed with clinical depression is said to be subject to biochemical imbalances in the brain and therefore will be subjected to antidepressant drugs or ECT therapy. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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Psychodynamic Model

Abnormality could be understood from a psychological perspective which is the supporting argument for the psychodynamic model. Proponents of the model postulate that intrapsychic conflicts within the subconscious mind are the cause of the behavioral abnormality. The abnormal individual suffers from the inability to balance the “substance” of the self or rather an ego, and bursts of anxiety triggered by external stimuli interpreted by the brain (Kinderman, 2005). The individual in questions, therefore, juggles between normalcy and abnormality as they try to get a hold of their mental process viz-a-viz their emotions. The treatment approach is psychoanalysis as the therapist walks the individual through a mind exploration exercise and subsequent empowerment to control their mental and emotional process in a mature manner. An example would be a patient succumbing to anxiety disorders where the therapist walks them through a mental exploration exercise to help them come to terms with the causes of the anxiety to guide them on how to handle each of the haunting memories.
Behavioral Model

A different view of the potential causes of anomalies is the surrounding environment and its compelling forces that will most likely affect an individual through either stretching of mental limits, in which case behavior and perception changes or stepwise learning by watching others (Kinderman, 2005). The model asserts that the environmental variables could impel behavioral imbalances through the bombardment of stimuli specifically tied to occupying or living within a particular social context. The model argues that in the same argument that behavior is learnable, abnormality could also be learned through examples from the surrounding environment. For example, a gruesome murder could instigate both paranoia when meeting strangers or hypersensitivity to banging sounds. Therefore the most appropriate approach to treating such an emulated abnormality is the removal from the location to refresh memory and encourage the suppression of the abnormal behavior.
Cognitive Model

The model arises from a behaviorist presumption that human behavior stems from thought dynamics that further on coalesce in patterns that manifest as behavior. However, since thought mediation processes are unique to the individual there is the chance that a particular mannerism of mediating thought, or rather cognition may be distorted such as through generalizations and biased beliefs that subsequently reflect as behaviors that deviate from what would be considered normal (Freeman et al., 2002). Treatment would use behavioral therapy to influence the individual to change perception. For example, a person may subscribe to the idea of cultural, spiritual healing and subsequently shun modern medicine even though they may be severely ill and need a diagnosis and medical treatment. The treatment approach exploited by the therapist would be invoking behavioral adjustment for the patient to consider modern medicine.
Humanistic Model

Humanism takes on a different approach from other propositions since it addresses the individual as a coherent whole and is not quick to label any behavioral/psychological incongruence as a medication condition. According to the model, an individual may experience a psycho-emotional split between their real personality and that they consider ideal, a case that qualifies as an abnormality (Churchill et al., 2010). The method of treatment of such an abnormality is case-specific nurturing therapeutic scenarios that try to bridge the two personalities into one coherent and acceptable form. For example, colonized populations suffer from an inferiority complex that manifests in the form of their real self, and their “ideal” Western identity. The nurturing therapy would come in handy to empower their view of themselves and elevate their self-esteem.
Family Systems Model

Out of all the nurturing dimensions that a child needs to develop into a fully functioning adult with behavioral coherence as would be within a family setting, the suppression, abandonment, or deliberate skipping of any of any of the requisite requirements is more likely to create and reinforce behavioral anomalies (Langroudi, Bahramizadeh, & Mehri, 2011). The model, therefore, asserts that familial upbringing could explain a variety of behavioral maladaptation that renders an individual peculiar from the general population. For instance, a peculiarly disadvantageous low self-esteem may be due to wrong disciplinary measures taken by the parent of the person while they were young due to the maladaptive schemas already forged by the individual. Treatment may take the form of conjoint (inclusive) family therapy, a strategic, or structured approach inclusive of the family.

Churchill, R., Davies, P., Caldwell, D., Moore, T. H., Jones, H., Lewis, G., & Hunot, V. (2010). Humanistic therapies versus other psychological therapies for depression. Cochrane Database Syst Rev., 2010(9), 1-23.
Deacon, B. J. (2013). The biomedical model of mental disorder: A critical analysis of its validity, utility, and effects on psychotherapy research. Clinical Psychology Review, 33(7), 846-861.
Freeman, D., Garety, P. A., Kuipers, E., Fowler, D., & Bebbington, P. E. (2002). A cognitive model of persecutory delusions. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 41(4), 331-347.
Kinderman, P. (2005). A psychological model of mental disorder. Harvard review of psychiatry, 13(4), 206-217.
Langroudi, M. S., Bahramizadeh, H., & Mehri, Y. (2011). Schema therapy and family systems theory: The relationship between early maladaptive schemas and differentiation of Self. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 30, 634-638.

Time Management Paper

In modern life time is becoming a more and more valuable and hard to obtain asset. For many years and centuries people were ready to spend their time not only to earn money, but even to save it. Nowadays, the trend is to save time. Oftentimes it costs money to save time. People who live in modern urban areas will order food delivery from the restaurants not out of laziness or desire to eat something special, but only to save time, which is necessary for cooking. Ordering cleaning services is another popular way of saving time by avoiding certain daily routines. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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The realities of modern life are such that people have to spend more time travelling. Those who live in large cities have to spend hours in traffic daily. The society is pressing upon humans a number of “must have things” which humans then seeks to achieve: a newer model of a car, cell-phone, and a new model of clothes, another kitchen appliance, and a conceptually new toy for the child. In order to afford all this, modern people work harder and harder. In many cases their working day is not limited to must eight hours a day even for experts. People, who run their businesses, have to dedicate long hours to management, promotion and development of their enterprises. Besides, any professional in modern realities needs to keep track of frequent and significant changes, which take place in almost every aspect of life, in any professional field. In this respect modern experts more and more frequently speak of such a concept as life long learning (Taut, 2002).
The concept of life long learning presupposes that the education of a professional will not be limited to university or college education. During the period of their life the conditions of their work may change significantly, new tools and new approaches may appear. This is why it is important to keep on learning throughout one’s professional career. Besides, there are background skills, which are “must have” for almost every individual, such may include IT literacy, driving, skills of effective parenthood and a number of other skills which need to be obtained and developed throughout one’s life time. This means, that a modern person requires time not only for work, which in many instances takes much more than just 8 hours a day, not only for the way to work and back, which in some instances takes up to several hours a day, but also requires time for constant education. Sedentary lifestyle, which many inhabitants of big metropolitan areas lead, add up another “must” to this list: physical training on daily basis – jogging, attending gyms and swimming pools. All this makes the daily schedule of a modern person quite busy (Posthill, 2002).
But what about the personal life? It is wrong to dedicate the entire life of a human being to meeting mainly physiological needs. This actualizes the problem of effective time management. Time management is, probably, the main skill, which contemporary people need to obtain in order to improve the quality of their lives. Time management, however, belongs to the category of those skills, which require life long learning. The basics of life learning need, probably, to be implemented into school and college curricula. Such a measure is likely not only to improve overall quality of life and life satisfaction, but may drastically decrease the level of violence and conflict within entire society; this is why such a measure should and can become a concern of state level. Instead, for many people are left alone with their inability to manage their time effectively, which results in numerous easy to avoid conflicts and psychological disorders.

Posthill, J. (2002), Clock and Calender Time. A missing anthropolical problem, in Time and Society, 11(2/3), pp. 251-270.
Tait, A. (2002) Rethinking Learner Support at the Open University UK, in Tait, A. and Mills, R. (eds.) Rethinking Learner Support in Distance Education: Change and Continuity in an International Context, 185-197, London: Routledge Falmer

Situational Factors

When deciding whether to help other people, there are different types of factors which can effect a person’s decision. One type of these factors is that of situational factors. Four of these situational factors are time, presence of others, relationship to the person in need and training.

In general individuals are more likely to help a person in need when they are not in a rush. For example, if you see someone requiring assistance as you a running late for a meeting, some people would choose to go to the meeting and not stop to help .Another factor is that of presence of others. If there are other people present this allows the individual to believe that the person in need will receive help from someone else. For example if you see a car broken down on a deserted road you are more likely to stop and help than if you see a car broken down on a busy highway . You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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The third situational factor is that of the relationship to the person in need. If the individual has a person connection to the individual in need they are more likely to help. For example, people will help a close family friend move, but would not necessarily help a stranger . The final situational factor is training and experience. If an individual has specific training they are more likely to stop and help. For example, someone with medical training is often more likely to stop and help someone in a medical crisis . Overall there are many factors which can influence a person’s decision to help another individual in need. As such it can be difficult to predict a person’s behaviour unless all of these factors are known.

Dovidio, J. F., Piliavin, J. A., Schroeder, D. A., & Penner, L. (2006). The social psychology of prosocial behavior: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers.

Social Institutions


Social institutions are well defined sets of subsystems and norms that are typically essential in supporting the survival of the society. Each sector has distinct sets of responsibilities and tasks that contribute towards the general stability of the society at large. Thus, social institutions are typically established to give the society a desired structure and help reduce chaos. Most importantly, each social institution in the society is essentially established to perform particular duties and promote cohesion and solidarity amongst the people (Devore, 2016). You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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There are various significances that are associated with the establishment of social institutions in the society. They enhance reproduction. Contrary to that aspects of reproduction like the reproduction of goods, human race, services, traditions, and all other components of social lives are generated through social institutions. Families reproduce the human race while economic institutions are involved in the production of goods and services. Additionally, rituals and ceremonies are products of religious institutions whereas power is generated from political institutions amongst other examples (Tubaro, 2014).
Apart from production, social institutions promote socialization. They are the units of preserving social norms and consequently transmitting them to the desired groups of individuals in the community. As far as learning is a continuous process, socialization starts from the moment of birth all the way until death. Other than that, social institutions also promote the sense of purpose in people because all segments of the society are essentially established to fulfill particular tasks (Devore, 2016).
Social institutions necessitate the transmission of culture in the community because each segment of the society is embedded with particular sets of cultural configuration. Additionally, the presence of these institutions in the community promotes personality development in people because they shape individuals to behave and act in particular manners. For example, a child who is born in Pakistan and socialized in another country like the United States of America will consequently reveal the personality traits of the American natives (Devore, 2016).

Devore, K., (2016). Social Institutions: Definition & Examples. Available at http://study.com/academy/lesson/social-institutions-definition-examples-quiz.html

This article has provided a remarkable platform of discussing social institutions in the society including the definition of terms and appropriation of related examples. Nonetheless, Devore has taken into the article to offer a brief meaning of social institutions alongside their significance in capacity building in different contexts of the society. Additionally, the article has unarguably remarkable sparkling in people who are interested in learning more about the role of social institutions at different society contexts.
Nash, K. (2002). Political Sociology Beyond the Social Democratic Nation-state. Sociology, 36(2), 437-443.

Nash has taken into this article to discuss core aspects of political sociology in the society. Other than understanding how political institutions operate, the article has also enumerated why political institutions can affect the solidarity and cohesiveness of different individuals in the society. Nonetheless, political institutions are remarkably and essentially instrumental in the running of operational activities of other social institutions like economic projects of countries and governments.
Tubaro, P. (2014). Sociology and Social Networks. Sociology, 48(2), 410-416.

This journal offers a discussion forum about the issue of sociology and more so in the development of different social networks and contexts in the society. Thus, not unless social institutions are developed and managed accordingly at different levels of the society; it will be typically difficult to attain the desired solidarity and balance in the society. Most importantly, Tubaro has insisted that social institutions should be at their best operational ability to guarantee the desired balance in the society.

Just like other social institutions for example, education and religion, conflict theory is applicable in political contexts. The theory states that when power, status, and resources are not distributed evenly in the community it can trigger conflicts amongst the people. Nonetheless, uneven distribution of power and wealth in the society are the core foundations of conflicts in different political contexts in the society. Power can be described as the establishment of control over material things. Thus, as individuals tend to work to accumulate wealth, they are likely to enter into conflicts with their counterparts who may have divergent views and approaches of accumulating resources (Nash, 2002).
Besides that, conflict theory is relatively clear under political contexts when political leaders initiate leadership approaches that are not acceptable to all individuals in the society. On the regard, politicians and other concerned parties that have conflicting ideas tend to engage in divergent approaches that are likely to change the status quos (Nash, 2002). Thankfully, ideological differences in political contexts are the fundamental engines of initiating for change and improving the social status of people in different contexts of the community. Currently, political institutions have been the core platforms for running different contexts of the society. From the idea of conflict theory, ideological differences play significant roles in compelling political leaders and parties to initiate their spheres of influences in rightful manners. Perhaps, there are no better ways of cultivating perfection in different contexts of the community other than embracing conflicting ideas and views regarding the ruling approaches of governments and countries. Most importantly, conflict theory in political contexts of the society is unarguable instrumental in initiating for balance of acceptable influences in different social institutions in the community (Nash, 2002).

From the above discussion, it is unarguably clear that the success of any complete society will essentially depend on the operational capabilities of social institutions. Most importantly, it is important to note that every person has a unique duty to accomplish to necessitate the success of social balance and co-existence in the society. Thus, personally, I think that as far as we all need social institutions in working towards cohesiveness and comfortable lives, every member of the society should take the initiative of promoting the desired balance and smooth operational ability of the community. In fact, social institutions are the core determinant of how we live and relate with one another in our daily lives. For example, educational institutions have been developed in the society to relieve people from their ignorance and preparing them to be constructive in their undertakings. Besides that, social institutions play significant roles in the transfer of culture from one generation to the next. Perhaps, the aspect of culture is evolutionary and tends to change from one generation to another. Thus, not unless institutions are developed to help in passing down the culture form one generation to the next; it will be extremely difficult to shape the society according to our desires and ideas (Tubaro, 2014).
Thankfully, the articles titled “Social Institutions: Definition & Examples,” “Political Sociology Beyond the Social Democratic Nation-state,” and “Sociology and Social Networks” have all provided an educational forum for enlightening the masses about the significance of sociology and more so social institutions (Devore, 2016). Perhaps, we all come from different backgrounds but the fact that social institutions is there to link and connect our diversity into meaningful thing is a relatively remarkable (Tubaro, 2014).Most importantly, we should use our unique skills and social techniques to empower others in the society. Moreover, we should be readily available and at our best in the running and management of our social institutions for a guaranteed success (Nash, 2002). Consequently, we should explore different subsystems are essential in the final operational ability of our societies to ensure that they are running smoothly. In summary, social institutions are the core determinants of the shapes that our societies are likely to take and more so how we would live and relate with one another. Thankfully, educational initiatives like research practices about social institutions are being developed and supported in the community lately to facilitate the cohesiveness and peaceful coexistence of individuals in them society. Hence, other than just learning and making explorations, our elementary focus should be to apprehend and necessitate our social institutions whatsoever.

Devore, K., (2016). Social Institutions: Definition & Examples. Available at http://study.com/academy/lesson/social-institutions-definition-examples-quiz.html
Nash, K. (2002). Political Sociology Beyond the Social Democratic Nation-state. Sociology, 36(2), 437-443.
Tubaro, P. (2014). Sociology and Social Networks. Sociology, 48(2), 410-416.