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Statistical Decisions Model Paper

The following is needed in paper form… no other needs to be done even though there are options listed.  Must be APA format. 
Statistical Decisions Model
It is clear from the material in this course that descriptive and inferential statistics play a critical role in research in the behavioral and social sciences. Since you will further your education via coursework and application in your respective fields, it is important to reflect on the knowledge you have gained and its applicability to your future in your chosen profession. Utilizing all that you have learned and been exposed to in this course, write a paper or presentation providing an overview of your knowledge of basic and inferential statistics, specifically discussing how you would go about deciding upon the appropriate statistical tests to use for a study.
Include the following in your assignment:

Create and present a decision tree, outline, or other model that includes a series of questions to help someone decide what statistical test is appropriate for a study. Consider the number, type, and scale of measurement of the variables, as well as what you may want to know about the variables (e.g., relationship, difference, etc.). This may be presented as a chart, table, mindmap, or other visual representation, or simply formatted as an outline.
Explain the steps involved in the model and how you created this model for making statistical decisions. What were the easiest and most difficult parts of this process?
Describe two different studies of interest to you. (Note: Neither study should be one that you focused on in any of the assignments during the course.) Include the following in the description:

Research Question – List the research question for each study.
Hypotheses – List the statistical notation and written explanations for the null and alternative hypotheses for each study.
Variables – Identify the variables and each of their attributes: discrete or continuous, quantitative or categorical, scale of measurement (nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio), and independent or dependent.

Demonstrate how you would utilize the statistical decisions model you created to choose the appropriate, specific test(s) for each study. What is your conclusion using this model? Did the model lead you to the correct test(s)? If not, how do you know and what changes might need to be made to the model?
Why might a statistical decisions model be useful in statistics and research methods? What are its limitations?
What did you learn or gain from creating this model and applying it to the study of interest? How might you use this model in the future?

The format for this presentation can take the form of a paper. The paper should be a minimum of 2100 to 2800 words long (excluding title and references pages) and include a title page, introduction, conclusion, and references page. APA formatting should be used for the paper. Utilize at least four resources for this paper, which should be cited accordingly. You can use PowerPoint, video presentation with visual aids, or other format preapproved by the instructor.

Should Students Work While Studying?

Topic: Students working while studyingGeneral purpose: To argue

Specific purpose: To argue that students should not study while working You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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Thesis statement: Students should not study while working because 1) they will not have time to concentrate in their studies 2) they will engage in unruly activities 3) it causes students to drop out of school
Introduction

I) [Attention Getter] The statements below given by the US department of education were published in Sheena’s book, Studying Strategies.

‘It is estimated that there are more than five million teenagers who are working in the United States as of today.’ (‘) Most teenage students are trying their best to find jobs while they are schooling.” (Sheena 282-283).

The salary they receive might make them engage in unruly activities because they are not responsible and they do not know how to handle money.’ (Sheena 269-270).
II) [Topic justification/ Establish controversy] In today’s world, most teenage students, all over the world engage in various part time jobs, mostly in developed countries.

Students who work while in school are likely to drop out of school because of the stress associated with multi-tasking their school work with job activities (Clifford & Nigel, 2012).

Many students who work while studying experience difficulties in their academic works. A research conducted by the National Council showed that those students who spend over 20 hours a week working while studying are likely to get poor grades. (Michael, 2014).

I totally agree with the National Council findings that students should not work while studying.
III) [Credibility statement] I have a strong interest in education

I have spent a lot of time researching on both sides of students working debate.

I was privileged to attend a seminar where educational stakeholders debated on the students working issue
IV) [Preview] the education department should prohibit working while studying in the US for three reasons

First, students who engage in jobs are less likely to do less homework and have very little time to concentrate on their studies.

Second, working while at school can make a student drop out of school.

Finally, working while in school can make a student have bad habits.

Transition: let’s begin with factors that have an immense impact when one works while studying: working while schooling is not good because it adversely affects one’s education.
Body

1.[ First constructive argument] First, students who engage in jobs are less likely to do less homework and have very little time to concentrate on their studies

A. working while schooling was originally designed to assist student gain experience before the get into the job market, but the unintended consequence is that it has adversely affected student’s education
1. A research carried out by the institute of Medicine also found out that students who spent more than 20 hours a week working get poor grades (Sheena, 2000).

2. This is largely due to the fact that students arrive home late and tired and hence they cannot handle their homework (Sheena, 2000).

3. Students who spent more than 20 hours a week working get poor grades (Sheena, 2000).
B. On top, working while schooling can make a student drop out of school.

1) Findings of research by University of Minnesota and Stanford University found out that students who work while studying are likely to drop out of school. Moreover, students who work while in school are likely to drop out of school because of the stress associated with multi-tasking their school work with job activities (Michael, 2014).

2) A research carried out by the Temple University found out that students who work are likely to engage in alcoholism that will make such students skive classes and work so that they can earn an extra coin for their leisure activities. This might also lead to addiction which is an added problem. Addiction will lead such students to engage in other activities such as pre-mature sex which will result to early and unwanted pregnancies. Such students are also likely to acquire sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS (Michael, 2014)
C. Many students do not realize that working while studying is unfavorable because they get extra cash besides the pocket money that they receive from their parents and guardians (Michael, 2014).

Transition: Now that we comprehend exactly how working while studying affects one’s education, we will look at its implications in the society and disadvantages.
II) [Second constructive argument] Second, working as a student affects the education.

Working while studying affects the education system in the United States.

The Education Department of the US has tried to abolish working while studying and made laws to curb this situation ( Clifford & Nigel 2012)

By disrespecting the wishes of the Education Department of the US we undermine its authority (Clifford & Nigel 2012).

A report issued by the National Council claims that working affects education negatively.

The National council report makes it clear that studying while working is illegal and be abolished by all means.

Transition: Even though it is vivid that working while studying is unfavorable, some critics argue that it is counterproductive. My next argument will show that working is actually counterproductive.
III. [Refutation] finally, working while school is not productive

[Minimization] Working while schooling has more cons than pros.

Such students are likely to value money more than their academic work.

A research carried out by the institute of Medicine also found out that students who spent more than 20 hours a week working have high rates of alcohol consumption (Sheena, 2000).

[Turn the table] Furthermore, working will lead such students to engage in other activities such as pre-mature sex which will result to early and unwanted pregnancies.

Students are also likely to acquire sexually transmitted infections such as HIV/AIDS (Michael, 2014).

Students who have been affected by such diseases may drop out of school due to stigmatization.

[Impact statements] Working while schooling not only affects education but also the society at large.

Transition: Although working while in school is beneficial, it has many disadvantages.
Conclusion

In summary, let’s look at why the government should abolish student working programs in the US.

A. First, students who engage in jobs are less likely to do less homework and have very little time to concentrate on their studies.

B. Second, working while at school can make a student drop out of school.

C. Finally, working while in school can make a student have bad habits
It is high time the government curbs the student working program to promote education system and the society at large.
Enthymemes

Categorical Enthymeme

Major premise: working affects students negatively

Minor premise: Working affects studies

Conclusion: working affects studies negatively

Tests:

1-yes, only three terms appear, they are in the right place.

-major term: Studies

-minor term: Working

2-yes each term is used twice.

3-yes, the middle term is applied universally

4-yes the middle term is used again in the minor premise

5-yes, at least one of the premises is affirmative

6-both terms are affirmative therefore the conclusion is negative
Hypothetical Enthymeme

Major Premise: if engage in work studies program, you affect you education

Minor Premise: work studies work program affects education

Conclusion: work studies program undermines education
Tests

1-yes, the two conclusions are casually related, work program is an underlying component of education

2- The minor premises affirms the antecedent

3- Yes, a logical conclusion is made because the minor premise corresponds with the antecedent.

References
Clifford, K & Nigel, F. Multitasking while Studying: Divided attention (2012). New York, NY: Oxford University press
Michael, P. Study Skills: How to Manage your Time (2014). Boston; Cengage Learning
Sheena, G. Studying Strategies: How to Effectively Balance Studies and Work (2000). Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

Is Photography Art?

Introduction

According to Tolstoy (2016), art depends on how a feeling or an affection transfers from one person to another person through hearing or sight. Perhaps Tolstoy’s view of art did not decipher the common meaning and purpose of art as compared to the earlier definition of Koch (2008). According to Koch, Gerken and Codex Foundation (2008), art is the realm, artistic expression, production and artistic quality of what is beautiful in the accepted standards and in an extraordinary way. Comparing the two definitions regarding photography, then photography may pass as an art according to Tolstoy. This is because photography, similar to painting, has the power to inspire, engage and move viewers. For instance, a photograph of a hungry child in a war-stricken African or Middle Eastern country inspires the whole world to give and maintain peace. However, photography as an art in the world of Koch, Gerken and Codex Foundation might generate a range of different views. The artistic production and quality of modern photography are debatable in a world where picture manipulation to improve the aesthetic appearance of images is rampant. The increasing quality of a photograph essentially leads to a depreciating artistic merit such that modern photography is more a science than art. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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Literature Review

In Rudolph Arnheim’s book Art and Visual Perception, his key argument for photography as an art lies by likening the principles that apply to more tradition forms of artistic expression to the more modern expression of phtography (1954). The crux of his analysis lies on his interpretation of the gestalt theory, a psychological view that presents the idea that the mind receives all input in a whole and complete form. This leads into his theory that speech in the art room muddles what the artist wants one to recognize with their own psychology. This is an accordance with other literary assessments, such as Alymer Maude’s translation of Tolstoy’s What is Art? (2016).
According to Tolstoy, preliminary analyses of art always begin with the perception of beauty, something he feels has been muddled by the constant discussion and various perspectives of what true beauty is. While this serves his purpose to push that artists should remain connected to the colloquial world while creating art because then the true meaning of beauty can be seen, it seems hypocritical that he is discreding discussion of the meaning of beauty while offering discussion points himself. His view is aligned with Arnheims in that he believes that art is the immediate emotions and thoughts one gathers with sight and hearing, but Tolstoy narrows his view due to his extreme dislike of female nudity within art. This has been a major subject in not only traditional art, but photography as well, and Tolstoy is not the only major literary force to feel this way Koch, Gerken, and Codex Foundations take that definition of art and expand it while critizing, though inadvertently so, a limited perspective of beauty.
In ART : definition five (and other writings), Koch and Gerken focus on the idea that modern art, including largely photography, takes a much more sophisticated albeit complete perspective on beauty (2008). They view that much of popular contemporary art has been saturated with overanalyizations and if one were to remove those viewpoints, the pieces would be nothing but ordinary collections. Although this may appear to be a much more open opinion, it is similar toTolstoy’s opinion that art needs only to be appreciated by those he qualifies as being able to succinctly appraise it. They want to set photography as a pure form like other forms of art, thus damning manipulation further and relating to Tolstoy’s view of art.
Walter Benjamin takes a comparable opinion on the reproducibility of photography in The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction (2010) but with a different lens. Although he admonishes the reproduction of art, he has recognized its emergence in art as an unchangeable force. The question posed here is how can photography be viewed as a true art when it can be so easily reproduced? He answers this by implying that while the uniqueness is removed from art during reproduction, reproduction has become such a standard in photography that its still succeeds as an art form to be uniquely viewed by the beholder. Kelsey would appear to agree with this view in Photography and the Art of chance (2015, but the warrant on it has been unfortunately juxtaposed. Kelsey’s assertions seems to be that while art can’t be viewed by its mechanical efficiency, it takes the perfect shot to really create art in a photograph. This clear confliction is indicative of how even the most forward and established voices in the art world are having issues trying to classify photography as an art.
Jacob and Kinsley critize this opinion in Photography into Art. Pre-Raphaelites to the modern age (2016) by finding that photography has deep ties to to traditional arts in style. This is a much more concrete definition of art than has been seen in the other sources, being that all art has to relate to the roots of art. Such a definitive view of art does leave out the massive changes present in photography and doesn’t allow for analysis like that of Benjamin’s.

References
Arnheim, R. (1954). Art and visual perception (1st ed.). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Benjamin, W. (2010). The work of art in the age of mechanical reproduction (1st ed.). Lexington, KY: Prism Key Press.
Jacobi, C. and Kingsley H. (2016). Photography into Art. Pre-Raphaelites to the modern age. London: Tate Gallery Publishing Ltd.
Kelsey, R. (2015). Photography and the Art of chance (1st ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.
Koch, P. R., Gerken, J., & Codex Foundation. (2008). Art: Definition five (and other writings). Berkeley, Calif: Codex Foundation.
Tolstoy, L. (2016). What is art? (1st ed.). London: Bloomsbury Academic.

Barcelona Olympics 1992

In the past few decades, there has been increased popularity of Olympics games and related events. The increased popularity can be attributed to the huge impacts that Olympics events have on socio-economic and political status of the host city. Professionals such as engineers, architects, and town planners play a significant role in the preparation of the Olympics Games, since hosting this event involve huge construction projects. There are also many sporting infrastructures involved such as roads and houses, which in most cases need renovations.

For the past years, Barcelona has utilized mega-events to transform and promote its economic and social status. For instance, Barcelona hosted the Universal Exposition 1888 and used “Paris of South” as its slogan to promote its image (Chalkley, 2000). The major city campaign was initiated in the 1901 immediately the industrial and nationalist party entered power and enforced the new urban policy (Chalkley, 2000). The major focus of the policy was to develop an ideal city with good plans and structures, including good monuments. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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In the 1903, Barcelona Town Council advertised the bids for the design of a city and the French Architect Leon Jaussely was awarded the tender to develop a plan of Barcelona Municipal Strategy (Botella, et.al, 1995). The international marketing of Barcelona as a tourist destination started in the 1908, in conjunction with various European cities, after the initiation of the ‘Society for attraction of foreigners’ in Barcelona (Brunet et.al, 1995). This presented Barcelona as a cosmopolitan city and attracted high number of tourists. During this time, major tourist attraction sites such as Sagrada Familia Church, the Plaza de Cataluna, and Paseo were constructed. These historical buildings and monument showed the uniqueness of Barcelona as a modern city.
Barcelona and the Olympic Games 1992

The opportunity to host the Olympic games of the 1992 facilitated the shifting of its traditional architecture into the modern facilities. The 1992 Olympic Games played a significant role in setting up new restructuring strategies (Brunet et.al, 1995). The city went through enormous changes that later transformed the region from the traditional city into a lithe city. The major constructions that were undertaken during this period included reconstruction of the structures in the Gothic Quarters and those situated in the Montjuic Mountains and the restoration of the ring roads within the city area.
During this period, renowned Architects played significant role in designing major projects such as Calatrava 5, which was invited to restore the Montjuic Telecommunications Tower. Gregotti 6 was invited to restructure the Montjuic Stadium (Brunet et.al, 1995). Additionally, Isozaki8 was invited to reconstruct the Palau San Jordi gymnasium. The major reason that facilitated the invitations of the distinct architects was the fact that these projects were supposed to have been completed prior to the games. However, a high number of these highly expensive projects were not completed by the time the Games begun.
The major aim of Barcelona planners was to maximize the funds injected into the Olympic Games and ensure that valuable investments remained behind after the Games. This major world event, Olympics Games, had enormous structural impact on the city of Barcelona (Chalkley, 2000). Using indirect investments, Barcelona focused on and injected most of its funds on road and carriage system infrastructure, housing and agencies and commercial setting. It is evident that Barcelona learnt from the past events and invested heavily on infrastructure that has continuously revitalized the city
Impact of Olympic 1992

The 1992 Barcelona Olympic Games had huge economic and non-economic impacts. The economic impact was mainly generated from the construction projects that were undertaken prior to the Games. The economic impact is one of the largest among all other impact and was felt five year prior to the Games. The table here below outlines the groupings of the economic impact percentage wise.
In addition to the economic benefits that Barcelona reaped from 1992 Olympic Games, Barcelona gained publicity internationally as the host of the world recognized Games. According to the survey carried out in the 1992, tourist acknowledged the City as the best environment to host Olympic events due to its favorable Olympic setting, high standard Olympic amenities and signage (Botella, et.al, 1995). Additionally, investors were also attracted and wanted to inject their funds into Barcelona due to its availability of human resources and services and general competitiveness.
The next achievement that Barcelona achieved due to its valuable Architecture and its professionalism is the award of the 1999 Gold Medal, presented by the Royal Institute of British Architect (The Royal Gold Medal 1999: The City of Barcelona, 1999). This award has for extended period been awarded to individuals who had unique service to architecture, but Barcelona broke this monotony in the 1999 when the award was presented to the city rather than an individual.
In conclusion, hosting mega-events has become a major trend for countries and cities to market themselves. Barcelona, through its projects initiated prior the Olympics such as construction of its seafront, the Ring Road and the sporting facilities in the Montjuic hill has gained great popularity today. Urban reconstruction and change is a continuous process are huge assets that are still unoccupied and has the potential to be expanded in the future.

References
Botella, M., Moragas, S. M., & Centre d’Estudis Oli?mpics i de l’Esport. (1995). The keys to success: The social, sporting, economic and communication impact of Barcelona ’92. Barcelona: Centre d’Estudis Oli?mpics i de l’Esport.
Brunet, F., Moragas, S. M., Botella, . P. M., & Centre d’Estudis Oli?mpics. (January 01, 1995). An economic analysis of the Barcelona’92 Olympic Games. Keys to Success: the Social, Sporting, Economic and Communications Impact of Barcelona’92, 203-237.
Chalkley, B. S. E. (January 01, 2000). Urban development through hosting international events: A history of the Olympic Games. Journal of Planning Literature, 14, 4.)
The Royal Gold Medal 1999: The City of Barcelona. (September 01, 1999). The Journal of Architecture, 4, 3, 229-244.

Society in Chronicle of a Death Foretold

This paper describes the society depicted in this novel. It discusses the values accepted in this town, and in particular how they relate to gender roles. Finally, it discusses prejudices within the novel, and described the role those prejudices play in the murder. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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The novel Chronicle of a Death Foretold depicts a society in which honour and reputation are values of paramount importance, particularly where those values concern the sexuality of women. The novel is shaped by the prejudice within this society that a woman’s sexual behaviour reflects her status and the status of her family, as it is this prejudice that forms the primary motivation for the murder.
Feminist theory describes the way in which women are raised in patriarchal societies to have no authority or independence, but instead to be possessions utilised for the furtherance of male status. This particularly the case in the novel, where the women – including the central character, Angela – form identities based on the assumption of marriage. Márquez writes that in Angela’s family “The brothers were brought up to be men. The girls were brought up to be married” (Márquez, 1996, p. 30). This demonstrates the clear value placed in this society on gender separation, with the women identified only by their connection to a man, even as the men are able to form identities based more solidly on their behaviour.
Marriage is important in the novel because of the prejudice against women’s sexual freedom, which is seen as reflecting poorly on their families as well as themselves. The prejudice against Angela’s illicit pre-marital sexual encounter is the prime motivator for the murder, as her family attempts to regain status within the society by erasing the evidence of Angela’s lack of honour. Describing the moment when Angela reveals Santiago’s name as her lover, Márquez writes that “she nailed it to the wall with her well-aimed dart, like a butterfly with no will whose sentence has always been written” (Márquez, 1996, p. 47). This metaphor demonstrates Angela’s vulnerability to the control of her male brothers, and the lack of authority she has over her own sexuality and life.
Despite the legal consequences suffered by Angela’s brothers, it is clear throughout the novel that society tacitly condones violence as a consequence of Angela’s illicit sexuality: although many people are aware of the threats of the Vicario brothers, no real effort is made to prevent the murder, nor to protect Angela’s rights or desires. The real murder in this novel is not of Santiago, but of Angela’s reputation. The actions of Santiago, Bayardo, and her brothers combine to destroy Angela’s hopes for a happy and respectable life, as her society views her purely in terms of her sexual behaviour.
As we can see then, this novel shows a society prejudiced against female authority and sexuality, and which values control over women’s honour.

Accounting Statement of Goals

I might never have become interested in Accounting if I didn’t have a love for Math and numbers. When my family was still living in Vietnam, they operated a coffee business and I was the obvious choice to manage accounting tasks. I would help them with various financial aspects of the business including bookkeeping, budgeting, and cost control. It were these experiences that helped me realize an accounting career will be the best fit to my skills, strengths, and interests. I am also suited to a career in accounting because in addition to being comfortable with the numbers, I also have strong analytical and critical thinking skills.

I have completed my Associate’s degree in Business at Tacoma Community College (TCC) to build a strong foundation for an academic career at University of Washington, Tacoma (UWT). In addition to being a student at TCC, I continued to hone my accounting skills by helping my family members file their annual income taxes as well as guiding relatives who operate a beauty salon. I am currently advising them how they can expand their beauty salon business by both becoming more cost-efficient as well as obtaining small business loans that will easily pay themselves off in the short term. I only helped my family and relatives out of courtesy but it turned out no one benefitted from the whole process as much as me. Applying accounting principles in real world has helped me appreciate the discipline even more and has even inspired me to persuade several aunts to adopt financial discipline in their daily lives. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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I regularly follow business and economic news and the financial scandals over the last decade have only increased the importance of accounting profession. The scandals remind us that there is a need to better educate the public about accounting concepts and in addition, there is lack of skilled accounting analysts who can detect accounting improprieties in a timely fashion and help restore public confidence in the financial system. Accounting is a language to communicate the economic status of an organization to the stakeholders, thus, accounting profession has a huge responsibility to ensure that companies apply accounting principles to present as accurate picture of their financial health and economic events as possible.
It is not only important to choose a major which is a great fit to one’s strengths and interests but also choose the right place to acquire learning. After doing extensive research, I have come to the conclusion that UWT is the ideal place to resume my academic career. Not only the Milgard School of Business has world-class faculty but I will also have tremendous opportunities to learning resources outside classrooms as well as access to the business school’s strong professional network. In addition, the accounting department is known to provide many opportunities to students to interact with leading accounting professionals in the industry.
During my campus visit, I met many students who are pursuing their accounting degree at Milgard and they had nothing but amazing stories. I also noticed that the students come from diverse economic and cultural backgrounds which will also significantly enhance my overall learning experience. I have been so impressed with the academic and campus life at Milgard and UWT in general that I also see myself pursuing graduate business degree at the school in the near future.

A Prejudicial Society in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird

Harper Lee used literature to examine the society around her. Her famed work, To Kill a Mockingbird, remains one of the most important books ever written for examining the reality of prejudice in the American South. The story is set during the Great Depression Period (1933-350) in a made-up town called Maycomb. The protagonist is Jean Louise Finch, also called Scout. Scout lives with her brother Jem and their father, Atticus (Lee 18). Atticus is a widower and lawyer by profession. Atticus gets assigned to a case that involves defending a black man, Tom Robinson, falsely accused of raping Mayella Ewell (a young white woman) (Lee 64). Despite a solid presentation that Atticus puts in proving the innocence of his client, the judge rules against the evidence. Tom Robison is sentenced to life imprisonment. Later, he tries to escape from the prison and is shot dead. In almost all her works, Harper Lee exposes various societal troubles, especially the many prejudices that exist in the society. Among the forms of prejudice covered in her works include racial discrimination, gender discrimination, age prejudices, and social class prejudices. In the novel, To Kill a Mockingbird, Harper Lee demonstrates the pernicious effect of racial prejudice, gender prejudice, and class or economic prejudice. You’re lucky! Use promo “samples20”
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The interaction of characters in the novel To Kill a Mockingbird reveals a rooted form of racial prejudice. The exchange between the characters in the fictitious court case of Tom Robinson is full of racist views. According to Smykowski, Bob Ewell uses an explicit language where he states that: “I seen that black nigger yonder ruttin’ on my Mayella!” (Smykowski 53). Smykowski explains that the use of the word “ruttin” compares Tom Robinson and the black people to animals. The term further gives them a non-human and foul quality. Bob Ewell openly shows utter disrespect to Tom Robinson. The statement from Bob reinforces the deep-rooted hatred of the white man towards the black folk. Bob used the term ‘black’ to symbolize the distinctive unclean nature of the black man. Bob Ewell picks his words deliberately to create an atmosphere that will portray Tom Robison as a heartless man capable of committing the accusations labeled against him. The quoted words spread the perception that the black folk was creation’s mistake and was a curse to the larger human society. Bob Ewell exposes the white man’s prejudiced view that the black man is always evil-minded and mischievous.
Interestingly, an interaction with Tom Robison reveals him to be a humble and morally upright individual while Bob Ewell turns out as cruel and devious. Nonetheless, Bob’s fictitious accusations carry the day against the truth from a black man. The events can only be described as an instance of racial prejudice in the novel. While interacting with other women during the Aunt Alexandra’s missionary women tea party, Mrs. Grace Merriweather demonstrates racial prejudice. Referring to the Mrunas in Africa, Mrs. Grace Merriweather describes them as living in darkness and poverty (Smykowski 53). She continues to explain that they solely rely on J. Grimes Everett for help and guidance. This is because only J. Grimes Everett (a white person) would go near them as no other white person would want to. There exists a racial prejudice that the black people in Africa are foolish and poor. The white man’s way of life is seen as superior to the black man’s. The white people do not view the life of the black man from the perspective of an African. The way of life of the black man in Africa has helped him thrive through generations and seasons. The civilization that is found in Africa cannot be in any way comparable to the one seen in the white man’s society. The usual environmental conditions between the two geographic locations are different. Therefore, the two communities are expected to list their priorities in life differently. Hence, the white folk doesn’t have a reason at all to fault or talk down the way of life of the people in Africa. Civilization should be seen as a way of life that enables human beings to adapt and get the best quality of living from their surroundings. It is prejudiced to label the life of the African people as one that is filled with darkness and poverty. More so, just because of prominent differences between the black people’s way of life and that of the white man’s community.
The conversation between Atticus Finch and Jem Finch reveals a deeper case of racial prejudice rooted in the country’s justice system. From the conversation, the sentencing of Tom Robinson was not based on evidence but on his race as Lanphear states “the sentence is based not on the evidence, but on Tom’s race.” (Lanphear 127). Lee helps the reader to realize that Robison is innocent of the accusation; however, she goes ahead to allow the judge to deliver a ruling that is unfair to foreground the issue. Matters of racial prejudice arise because of the way Tom Robinson’s case is handled. It can be argued that the court precedings were an execution of the protocol, if anything, Mr. Robinson’s fate was already determined. Sadly, not because he had committed the crime he was being accused of, but because he was a black person. Scout says that “a jury never looks at a defendant it has convicted, and when this jury came in, not one of them looked at Tom Robinson” (Lanphear 128). The judicial system is racially biased; it is beyond any explanation how the jury falls for the devious words of Bob and disregards proven facts from the defendant. In other words, justice was not meant to be enjoyed by the black folk; it was a reserve of the white men who ‘always tell the truth.’ The main observation of Lanphear’s argument is that the justice system always has some biases that are informed by the color of the skin of the man before it. Harper Lee allows the readers to understand the racial prejudices through the interaction of characters. The novel does not, however, allow the society to correct its racial prejudices which shows that such acts were standard.
Lee uses the interactions between characters to demonstrate the effects of gender prejudice. In the interaction between Aunt Alexandra and her niece, Scout Finch, gender prejudice is revealed. Hakala states that, “Scout’s Aunt Alexandra emphasizes these conventions when she suggests that Scout play with small stoves and tea sets, desiring that Scout submit to domesticity.” (Hakala 10). According to this phrase, there are some expected behaviors or societal standards that each gender must observe from an early age. Therefore, since Scout was a girl, it was expected that she would play with kitchen items that reflect her expected roles when she grew up. Lee foregrounds the prejudice with which tasks are shared between genders. According to Hakala (11), the female gender in the white patriarchal society depended on male figures for identity and status. A lady’s status depended on her father’s or the man who marries her. The male gender was in control of all aspects of the society. Scout explains that Jem and Dill would not allow her to join them in their play at the tree house due to her gender. Harper Lee writes that “but I kept aloof from their more fool hardy schemes for a while, and on pain of being called a girl, I spent most of my remaining twilights that summer sitting on Miss Maudie’s porch” (Lee 55). Because of her opposite gender, Jem and Dill (boys) would not allow Scout to join them in the tree house to play.
This instance was a clear reflection of how the society had connected gender prejudice to innocent children at their young age. Jem and Dill make Scout feel that being a girl is wrong. The two boys do not see anything wrong with their statement because that is what they have been brought up knowing; that the girl and females are ‘the insignificant other.’ In a demonstration of the power that the male gender uses in Scout’s society, they refuse to play with her because of who she is; a girl- something that she cannot change. Sometimes, Jem and Dill would play with Scout. The instance in the text that they refuse to play with her citing gender reasons expose the unfairness with which the dominant gender led its activities. It is a comment about the larger society that men only associate with women when it is beneficial to them and quickly dispose of them as they wish. The interaction between Bob Ewell and her daughter reveals gender prejudice in the society represented in the novel. According to Hakala, Bob Ewell uses his masculine authority over her daughter in forcing her to give a false confession (Hakala 11). Her daughter, Mayella, therefore goes ahead and claims that she was raped by Tom Robinson. The Maycomb society was a masculine society. With the male parent being the head of the household at home, his word was final and was to be observed without much questioning. Mayella is assaulted by her father; she suffers physical injuries on her body. However, she does not dare to rise against her father and defend herself. She submits to her father and takes a brutal beating. The interaction between Mayella and her father uncovers the ugly and unfortunate occurrences that the female gender was subjected to in Maycomb. The female often lived in fear and uncertainty. The rape incident, though made-up, points to the possibility that the act was a common occurrence. Thus, the male gender must have been sexually abusing the females. There exists some prejudice in the way the males would treat their likes (with respect) but view their female counterparts as objects from which pleasure could be derived. The society at Maycomb struggled with gender inequality, which also reflects the state of worldwide gender inequality at the time. In a world that expected a person to behave in a certain way due to their gender, it was difficult for a person (especially from the female gender) to break the curse.
Lee shows the ways in which social prejudice tended to keep certain people in their place in society. Mrs. Dubose conversation with Scout shows a case of social class prejudice. Mrs. Dubose explains to Scout that “unconventional behaviors will lower Scout to the working class.” (Hakala 16). The unusual behaviors are shown to be identical with the lower-working-class people. Furthermore, this is an indication that behavior was one of the classifications used to determine the social class. The society in Maycomb held the belief that the lower-working-class folk was rude. The elite class’ behavior, on the other hand, was regarded as the ideal. By default, every action of the lower-class folk was disliked by the Maycomb society whether good or bad. There is prejudice in the way the so-called ‘boyish’ behavior would make Scout dive into the world of unimportant jobs in the future. Bob Ewell was a member of the upper class; unlike Tom Robinson, the Maycomb community held his reputation in high favor. In the case fabricated against Tom Robinson, the jury is more persuaded to believe Bob Ewell because of his social status. Hence, it can be interpreted that the jury convicts Robinson because of his lower social status compared to the plaintiff. According to Hakala, people in different social classes in Maycomb acquire different levels of education. “Historically, men of their social class acquire more education than women, but Scout is on the path to surpassing the educational level of everyone in her class, including the boys” (Hakala 34). While this statement reveals two forms of prejudice, gender, and social class prejudice, it is the social class prejudice that holds more weight. This shows that the social class in which Scout was between, had the privilege of education among other things.
Scout’s social class accepted her as a member but had limited her freedom to pursue education beyond a certain threshold. The class where Scout belongs is prejudiced because it limits the powers of a group of its members from taking advantage of specific areas in life while increasing the potential for other groups. According to Smykowski (2), the black folk received the least form of education. Black people like Tom Robinson were kept from climbing up the social ladder in part because of the role that hardened social classes played. As Stiltner wrote, “Lee’s journey to have people live in a world where social class and race mean little in terms of harmony finds weight in Atticus’ ability to practice basic manners.” (Stiltner 33) Again, people from the lower working class such as Atticus could not be expected to have basic manners (the expected code of conduct). The lower social class people were therefore prejudiced against for not being able to observe these normal standards.
While Atticus made an impassioned plea that Tom could not have been responsible for the crime, Harper Lee demonstrated that social class prejudice kept the jury from properly understanding, accepting, and conceptualizing this. In his questioning, he made clear that Tom was not of the proper handedness to have committed the crime as suggested. However, in part because of his low social class and because of the high social class of Mayella’s father, the jury refused to believe that the father could have been responsible for the crime. In this, Lee shows how social class tends to operate—the benefit of the doubt is bestowed on the person of the higher social class as opposed to a person in the lower social class. This was Lee’s way of suggesting that along with social class, there came a belief in superior morality. As Hovet (67) wrote, the father was one of those “fine” Southern gentlemen often allowed to do basically whatever he wanted because of his perceived moral superiority to those around him. People were believed to be “good” if they were wealthy and prominent, while they were perceived to be “bad” if they were not rich. Social class prejudice infected the criminal justice system just as it infected other elements of the social world.
Lee’s work in To Kill a Mockingbird presents a clear picture of the pernicious effect that prejudice can have on a person in a society where divisions are hardened. The author shows that racial prejudice caused some within the community to jump to conclusions when evidence was not there. Gender prejudice allowed preconceived notions of the desired “roles” of individuals to have a massive effect. Social prejudice ensured that the rich would get the benefit of the doubt, while the poor would struggle to gain the trust of jury members and the like. In total, various prejudices combined to impact the case of Tom Robinson, which is used by Lee as a bigger symbol for the community as a whole.

References
Hakala, Laura, “Scouting for a Tomboy: Gender-Bending Behaviors in Harper Lee’s To Kill a Mockingbird” (2010). Electronic Theses & Dissertations, no. 176. https://digitalcommons.georgiasouthern.edu/etd/176. Accessed 26 Mar 2018.
Hovet, Theodore R., and Grace-Ann Hovet. “Fine Fancy Gentlemen” and” Yappy Folk”: Contending Voices in” To Kill a Mockingbird.” Southern Quarterly 40.1 (2001): 67.
Lanphear, Joshua B. “Inherent Racial Biases Woven into America’s Criminal Justice Institutions: A Reexamination of To Kill a Mockingbird”. Journal of Law and Social Deviance, vol 10, no. 2015, 2015, pp. 69-136. Elsevier BV, doi:10.2139/ssrn.2655639. Accessed 26 Mar 2018.
Lee, Harper. To Kill a Mockingbird. (50th Anniversary Eds.). Arrow, 2010.
Smykowski, Adam. “Symbolism and Racism in To Kill a Mockingbird.” Contemporary Literary Criticism, edited by Jeffrey W. Hunter, vol. 194, Gale, 2005. Literature Resource Center, Originally published in Readings on “To Kill a Mockingbird”, edited by Terry O’Neill, Greenhaven Press, 2000, pp. 52-56.
Stiltner, MitziAnn, “Don’t Put Your Shoes on the Bed: A Moral Analysis of To Kill a Mockingbird.” (2002). Electronic Theses and Dissertations. Paper 722. http://dc.etsu.edu/etd/722