Ethics in Epidemiological Research
An Experimental Study in the Primary Prevention of Type 2 Diabetes
Imagine that researchers are conducting a randomized controlled trial of a high-fiber supplement as a preventive measure in persons at increased risk of type 2 diabetes. People enrolled in the study are disease-free at the time they agree to participate in the trial, but they all have a family history of type 2 diabetes and are considered at high-risk (80%) to develop the disease during their lifetime. The 10,000 participants who start the trial are healthy individuals who are randomly allocated to receive either high-fiber supplements or placebo for several years. As you can imagine, this study will be quite expensive and will require a large infrastructure of personnel and materials to carry it out successfully.
Because type 2 diabetes has reached epidemic proportions in the United States, the potential benefits of this research are important at a population level. Unfortunately, high-fiber supplements have also been shown in a few studies to be associated with the gastrointestinal blockage (which can be life-threatening) and reduced nutrient absorption, which may lead to anemia, osteoporosis, and other debilitating chronic diseases. The supplements may also reduce absorption of certain medications and cause gastrointestinal distress. The potential side effects of continuous high-fiber supplementation are only partially understood, and long-term effects are unknown.
Post your initial response to at least two of the following questions:
What are the potential risks and benefits to be considered when designing this study?
When the side effects and long-term effects of a potential preventive measure are largely unknown, is it ethical to expose participants to these risks? Why or why not?
Is it ethical to deny the possible prevention benefits of high-fiber supplements to persons in the placebo group? Why or why not?
Do the potential benefits outweigh the potential risks to the participants and to society? Why or why not?
Use the information above, and chose any of the two questions below and answer with the good explanation.
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discussion 2Managing Health Care Marketing Channels” Please respond to the following:Analyze the types of challenges companies face in managing their channels and determine which is the most difficult to address. Explain your rationale.Describe a realistic situation that would call for channel conflict management and how that conflict could be addressed. Provide specific examples to support your response.
You have been hired as an expert healthcare legal consult by large religious-based healthcare system todevelop a training module on the topic of "Healthcare Ethics". Recently the facility has experienced anumber of negative blows to it's overall public image due to a string of ethical violations that haveoccurred over the past five (5) years. Based on the terms of legal contract that you and the organizationagreed upon, below are the specifications that the health system has requested to include within themodule: Accompanying Materials Create an agenda that includes at minimum five (5) objectives as a measurement ofeffectiveness, the purpose of the training, along with the targeted audio (who will benefitfrom participating in the module)
Layout of Module Design an actual forty-five (45) minute to one (1) hour virtual training module fordepartmental and organizational use on the topic of Healthcare Ethics (the intent is for afuture mandatory automated training; therefore audio is required) The module can include clip art, links to additional sources Must include recorded audio of each presentation’s slide Topics must include a minimum discussion on the following: employees, patient care,importance, alignment with the mission, the vision of and values of the organization, define anddiscuss ethics, compare and contrast ethics, morals, and values, it's impact on decisionmaking, measures to ensure employees practice and adhere to high ethical standards,impacts (financial, legal, reputation-wise in the event an issue occurs), outcome to expectin the event an employee is non-compliant. assess their knowledge and understanding throughout the completion of the module (atminimum incorporates three (3) – four (4) assessments that must include a post-assessment (final assessment) Incorporate real-life current healthcare ethics events as supporting evidence (forexample, links to cases, news reports, article write-ups, etc.)
Assessment(s) To assess the level of knowledge and understanding of participants throughout thecompletion of the module, design at minimum three (3) – four (4) assessments (that mustinclude a post-assessment (final assessment) periodically placed within the module
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Access to Health Services
According to HealthyPeople.gov, access to comprehensive quality healthcare services is important for the achievement of health equity and for increasing the quality of a healthy life for everyone. Healthy People 2020 focuses on four components of access to care: coverage, services, timeliness, and workforce.Create a 4- to 5-page Microsoft Word document that addresses the following:
Explain the Healthy People 2020 components of access to care pertaining to
Identify at least one consequence that a lack of access to healthcare has on women and girls.
Explain why access to care issues will need to be monitored even more closely within the U.S. healthcare system beginning in 2014.
Find at least two scholarly journal articles that discuss all or at least one of the topic areas related to access to care as defined by Healthy People 2020. Provide a synopsis of each article.
Explain what type of barrier(s) (structural, financial, or socio-cultural) each article examines? Describe at least two policies or strategies that can be implemented to improve access to healthcare services as they relate to the articles you reviewed.Support your responses with examples. Cite any sources in APA format.
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Generating and Assessing Evidence for Nursing Practice
Author – Denice F. Polite
Cheryl Tatano Beck
Chapter – 2, Evidence-based Nursing (Review pages 14-31).
Chapter 6, Theoretical Frameworks
chapter – 6 Theoretical Frameworks pages –
As they explore the world around them, young children often want to know the “why” and “how” of the things they observe. This is similar to what researchers do when they approach a new problem. Researchers develop new theories or build on old ones to explain the “why” of the world around them. They use models and conceptual frameworks to help explain “how” the processes and events they observe occur. Together, theories and models provide an understanding of the world and allow researchers to explore it in meaningful ways.
Virtually all research questions can benefit from the use of an existing theory or model. Researchers should consider their research questions and select the most suitable theory or model, which then serves as a foundation for the research design. The selection of a theory or model is an important part of the research process.
In this Discussion, you focus on the role of theory and models in research and evidence-based practice.
Review the information in Chapter 6 of the course text. Focus on the various conceptual theories and models that are currently used in nursing research.
Select one of the theories or models described that is of interest to you.
Using the Walden Library, search for and identify a research article that uses the theory or model you selected.
Reflect on how the theory or model provides structure to the research study described in the article.
Now, think about an issue in your practice area that you would be interested in exploring through research.
Review this week’s media presentation and consider strategies for locating and identifying a relevant theory or model for a research study.
By Day 3
Post a summary of the article that you located and explain how the theory or model that you selected was used in the research study. Assess the value of basing research on an established theory or model.
Polit, D. F., & Beck, C. T. (2017). Nursing research: Generating and assessing evidence for nursing practice (10th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Wolters Kluwer.
Chapter 2, “Evidence-Based Nursing: Translating Research Evidence into Practice” (Review pages 14–31)
Chapter 6, “Theoretical Frameworks”
In this chapter, you are introduced to the concept of theories, models, and frameworks and how they serve as the foundation for research. The chapter examines key theories for both quantitative and qualitative research. Finally, critiquing frameworks in research reports is detailed.
Cantrell, M. A. (2011). Demystifying the research process: Understanding a descriptive comparative research design. Pediatric Nursing, 37(4), 188–189.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article discusses the primary aspects of a prominent quantitative research design as used in a specific research study. The author analyzes the advantages and disadvantages of the design, along with the rationale for choosing that design.
Finn, P. (2011). Critical thinking: Knowledge and skills for evidence-based practice. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 42(1), 69–72.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article responds to the assertion that “rational or critical thinking is an essential complement to evidence-based practice.” The author stipulates how critical thinking is relevant to EBP, what skills and thinking dispositions are important, and how thinking can go wrong.
Tagney, J., & Haines, C. (2009). Using evidence-based practice to address gaps in nursing knowledge. British Journal of Nursing (BJN), 18(8), 484–489.
Retrieved from the Walden Library databases.
This article illuminates key barriers to undertaking and implementing nursing research. The authors suggest a framework for improving the implementation of evidence and research.
A short essay that describes why you want to become a pharmacist, why you believe the St. Louis College of Pharmacy is a good fit for you, and how you have met and overcome adversity in your past.
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Hospital at Home Program in New Mexico Improves Care Quality and Patient Satisfaction While Reducing Costs
Complete a detailed case study analysis of the given case, using the process described in the following chapter of your course textbook Strategic Management of Health Care Organizations:
From the Backmatter section of your book, please read:
Appendix A Analyzing strategic health care cases
Your completed case study analysis report will include the following sections:
Body of the case report
Benchmarks for success and contingency plans
Where not all pertinent information is given in the case itself, search for that information through the South University Online Library, or perform a Web search for the required information. Note: Do not search for information beyond the date of the case.
For the situational analysis you are encouraged to provide visual presentation of data in your situational analysis and use the analysis tools from your textbook and other analysis tools you have used in your program, such as trend analysis, stakeholder analysis, etc.
Present your case study analysis report in a Microsoft Word document, formatted in the headings and subheadings given above.
Submit your report in two steps. First, submit a preliminary report with the key issues, situational analysis, and strategy formulation. Then, submit the complete report with recommendation, implementation strategies, benchmarks, and executive summary.
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POLS210 Class Project:There are four parts to your class project: the first three are essays. The final part is a PowerPointpresentation that will display the combined work on the essays. For each assignment, there willbe detailed instructions and rubrics with scoring criteria available in the “Assignments” sectionof the course.OVERVIEW:1. You are a White House Staff Member working for a newly inaugurated President. ThePresident is preparing the first “State of the Union” address to Congress which willoutline the president’s vision for addressing current issues facing the United States.2. You will research issues to create the President’s address. The president is not a dictator.The proposals must consider the Constitution, relevant court rulings, and public opinion.3. After you have completed your research of the issues, you will then create a PowerPointpresentation reflecting your proposed State of the Union address. Think of it as your TVinfomercial promoting your plan, and use it to grab the public’s attention.4. The President (your class instructor) will then review your PowerPoint presentation tomake sure it accurately addresses the issues facing America within the context of what isallowed under the U.S. Constitution.Issue essaysUsing the “Assignments” section of the classroom, you will write three essays together withcited research sources—minimum of 300 words per essay on each of the following topics/issues:a. Healthcare (due at end of Week 2)b. Economy (due at end of Week 4)c. National Security (due at end of Week 6)For each essay, choose a problem within the topic. What are two prominent competing solutionsto this problem? Explain which one is better and why. How will the different levels ofgovernment be involved (federal, state and local)? This will require research into news recentnews articles (published within four weeks of each assignment’s due date). For each respectiveweek, include relevant information from the required readings for that week too.PowerPoint presentation (due at end of Week 7)After you have completed your research of the issues for the essays, you will design and build apresentation that represents each of the above issues and proposed solutions. This is anopportunity for you to use your creative side. You will use a minimum of three slides for eachissue for a total of at least nine slides.
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